Cow Milk Types
Following is a discussion of different types of casein in dairy.
also see Dairy - the Multi-faceted Substance
last updated 8.25.05
First Article from Australian Newspaper
November 13, 2002
Milk Consumption Linked to Autism
By Claire Harvey, New Zealand correspondent
Dairy giant Fonterra is trying to suppress explosive research linking milk with autism in children, according to a lawsuit filed in New Zealand's High Court. All milk and dairy products sold in Australia are potentially affected by the research, including Fon-terra's top-selling brands Mainland, Peters, Tip Top and Bega. A secret internal Fonterra memo, dated October 2000, reveals the New Zealand-based co-operative was warned by its own scientist of research suggesting autism, schizophrenia, diabetes and heart disease could be triggered by proteins found in all of its milk products and infant formulas. The memo, tendered in the High Court case, says there is "growing evidence, but yet unproven, that peptides released from milk may be related to occurrence of some mental disorders".
"If the media were ever able to assemble the information shown in this paper they could put an alarmist spin on the whole area of milk consumption," the internal briefing paper to directors of Fonterra, then known as the New Zealand Dairy Board, says. The research relates to a protein in A1 milk, which is the most commonly pro duced milk in Australia. The protein beta casein A1 is also allegedly a risk factor for childhood diabetes and coronary heart disease. The Australian and New Zealand Food Standards Authority says all milk sold in Australia is A1 type.
Its spokeswoman said it had not warned the public because of ongoing legal action. The accusations are made by A2 Corporation, a New Zealand biotechnology company formed by dairy scientist Corran McLachlan in 2000. Dr McLachlan alleges Fonterra has secretly applied for patent applications on research linking A1 milk with autism. But Fonterra accuses Dr McLachlan of publicity-seeking for A2 Corporation's own milk, which does not contain the protein. Dr McLachlan plans to launch A2 milk in the New Zealand market as early as Christmas. "This is a public interest matter," Dr McLachlan told The Australian. "We believe this information is being suppressed and that is why we are risking so much money on a High Court case."
Dr McLachlan said he would be wary of feeding A1 milk to children. "I would not encourage my kids to drink lots of milk," he said. "Fonterra chief executive Craig Norgate denies any cover-up."There is nothing in the research that gives us concern. We would be the first to take a responsible public stand if we felt it was warranted." A2 Corporation wants the court to force Fonterra to reveal all research it has linking A1 milk to autism, and to put health warnings on its A1 milk. The Fonterra memo says University of Florida scientist Robert Cade reported in 1999 that children with autism and schizophrenia had extremely high levels of BCM-7, a compound produced by the digestion of A1 milk. The potential for A1 milk to trigger childhood (type 1) diabetes was first reported by Auckland diabetes specialist Bob Elliott in 1994 and later supported by further research in 1999.
Second from the Australian Newspaper
Thu, 14 Nov 2002 10:32:43 -0000
Cut out Dairy for Autistic Children
By Claire Harvey, New Zealand correspondent and Clara Pirani, Health Editor November 14, 2002
Parents should try cutting milk from the diets of autistic children, as dairy products might aggravate or even cause the condition, an autism expert has suggested. The advice came as dairy giant Fonterra fights accusations in the New Zealand High Court it is covering up research linking autism and other mental disorders to milk consumption by patenting the damning study.
Paul Shattock, from the University of Sunderland's autism research unit in Britain in Australia for an international conference said about half of autism patients who tried a
milk-free diet had success. "We suggest people consider excluding dairy products from their diet for three weeks to see if there's an improvement in their health," he said.
Under the Fonterra study, autistic children were fed A1-type milk, suspected of causing mental disorders, according to a patent application obtained by The Australian. The study found the consumption of A1-type milk, which is the majority of milk sold in Australia, "may induce or aggravate neurological and mental disorders", including autism and the learning disability
But New Zealand-based Fonterra says the evidence is not conclusive and insists its milk is safe to drink. The study involved New Zealand children being given either A1 milk or another strain of milk, known as A2. The children who drank the A1 milk showed "a marked increase (up to 10-fold)" of the peptide beta-casomorphin 6, which may aggravate or cause neurological and mental disorders, the study says. The problem did not occur with A2 milk.
Fonterra sought the worldwide patent because it wanted to investigate developing a milk which did not cause these problems. A2 Corporation is suing Fonterra, accusing it of suppressing evidence of a link between A1 milk and autism. Although the medical community remains cautious, Sydney mother Debbie Paulo says the autism of her four-year-old son Bailey improved dramatically on a diet free of milk, gluten and wheat.
Some Articles on the A1 and A2 Milk
In summary, 'casein' has two molecular forms or configurations (very typical in chemistry or biology). They call one A1 and the other A2. What the folks in New Zealand have found is that one breed of dairy cows produce milk containing more of one type of A than another. So they have been breeding the cows so that the milk produced is nearly purely either A1 or A2. Most all commercial milk is a mixture of both types. Milk from Guernsey cows, goats, sheep, and humans produce milk that do not have the problematic casein peptides when digested.
What this says to me is that if you could find just pure A2 milk, goat milk, etc, then, theoretically, IF there is the opiate problem (which there very well may not be in most people), you would not need enzymes with these types of milks because they don't produce the problem. However, you would need something containing DPPIV and other enzymes for casein and gluten if you drank the A1 type of milk. Good links come up if you search under 'beta-casein.'
Food Standards - Australia
A Letter to the Editor
Guernsey A2 Milk
Question: Am I understanding this right? My HFS started carrying sheep's milk yogurt. My son loves yogurt but is allergic to milk/casein.
Answer: I don't know about this..maybe yes, maybe no. There are several things going on with milk, and peptides would only be one of them. The A1 issue is still a theory being worked on and is speculated to be tied to an immune system reaction in diabetes, heart disease, and a few autoimmune conditions.
However, the Specific Carbohydrate Diet has a core food of yogurt including goat yogurt, even though they eliminate grains and many sugars, which is helping many people with autism conditions. This shows there may be a good reason to put certain types of milk back in the diet. In addition, this would give a strong reason why many people putting milk back in the diet with DPP IV containing enzymes do much better than when they eliminated milk with enzymes. The milk is contributing something really, really beneficial that certain people need.
But it does sound like if you could find the type of dairy compatible with the person, then they could have that and benefit from that. Is your child truly 'allergic' to milk or has an intolerance? I think all this only would apply to a milk intolerance and for a true milk allergy you would still need to avoid all dairy.
Follow-up study on A2 milk
Second follow-up study on A2 milk
Beneficial Components in Dairy
Following is a list of the beneficial components in dairy. If you take an enzyme suitable to break down the possible excess problematic peptides, there are many good things left in dairy. Research references at end of article. This may go a long way to explaining why when people put dairy plus enzymes back into the diet, they see an jump in improvement over taking enzymes and eliminating diary.
Bovine milk proteins, biologically active peptides from milk proteins, and lipids from milk have potential therapeutic benefits involving digestive, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, antithrombotic and antihypertensive activities," so noted Ronald Richter, professor of food science, Dept. of Animal Science, Texas A&M University, in his presentation "Nutraceuticals/Functional Foods from Dairy Products." Microbial fermentation of milk-containing pre- and probiotics can also benefit human nutrition in several areas.
Several casein and whey components are precursors of biologically active peptides. For example, a-casein, b-casein and b-lactoglobulin all demonstrate potential antihypertensive activities. b-casein also shows immunoregulatory, antihypertensive and mineral absorption
properties; k-casein has appetite suppressant possibilities through gastrointestinal motility and release of digestive hormones, as well as antithrombic activities, Richter noted.
The antimicrobial effects of milk involve the whey proteins lactoperoxidase, lactoferrin, lysozyme, and immunoglobulins. Of particular interest is lactoferrin. Found in bovine milk at concentrations of approximately 90 mg/L, lactoferrin is a single peptide chain of 690 residues with carbohydrate side chains and two iron-binding sites. Lactoferrin is likely to be important in host defense mechanisms at mucosal membranes. Lactoferrin is much more highly concentrated (1250 mg/L) in bovine colostrum (the "first milk" secreted immediately after a cow gives birth), making colostrum a potentially exciting source for lactoferrin.
Human milk and colostrum contain much higher amounts of lactoferrin than does its bovine counterparts (1600 mg/L in human milk vs. 90 mg/L in bovine milk), raising the question whether infant formulas should be fortified with the protein. The temperatures required to sterilize the formulas during retort processing would denature lactoferrin, whose antimicrobial properties have not been demonstrated after denaturation. However, lactoferrin supplementation in infant formula may be beneficial since each molecule contains two iron-binding sites and would function as a source of this mineral.
Peptides mainly derived from b-casein can bind to opiate receptors. Although this activity has not been demonstrated in the circulatory system after digestion of milk, it has been shown numerous times in- vitro. [this indicates that with proper digestion any excess opiates from milk would not be a problem]
Following is a recent research study confirming the beneficial aspects of milk besides the opiates peptides. One thing opiate peptides do is regulate satiety or eating. So having some opiates regulate hormones and such appropriately so you feel full, don't overeat, and reduces cravings. It also mentioned fermentation and lactic bacteria involved.
Bioactive peptides encrypted in milk proteins: proteolytic activation and thropho-functional properties.
Meisel H, and Bockelmann W. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 1999 Jul-Nov;76(1-4):207-15. Federal Dairy Research Centre, Institute for Chemistry and Physics, Kiel, Germany. PMID: 10532380 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
The bioactivities of peptides encrypted in major milk proteins are latent until released and activated by enzymatic proteolysis, e.g. during gastrointestinal digestion or food processing. The proteolytic system of lactic acid bacteria can contribute to the liberation of bioactive peptides. In vitro, the purified cell wall proteinase of Lactococcus lactis was shown to liberate oligopeptides from beta- and alpha-caseins which contain amino acid sequences present in casomorphins, casokinines, and immunopeptides. The further degradation of these peptides by endopeptidases and exopeptidases of lactic acid bacteria could lead to the liberation of bioactive peptides in fermented milk products. However, the sequences of practically all known biologically active peptides can also be cleaved by peptidases from lactic acid bacteria.
Activated peptides are potential modulators of various regulatory processes in the body: Opioid peptides are opioid receptor ligands which can modulate absorption processes in the intestinal tract, angiotensin-I- converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory peptides are hemodynamic
regulators and exert an antihypertensive effect, immunomodulating casein peptides stimulate the activities of cells of the immune system, antimicrobial peptides kill sensitive microorganisms, antithrombotic peptides inhibit aggregation of platelets and caseinophosphopeptides may function as carriers for different minerals, especially calcium.
Bioactive peptides can interact with target sites at the luminal side of the intestinal tract.
Furthermore, they can be absorbed and then reach peripheral organs. Food-derived bioactive peptides are claimed to be health enhancing components which can be used for functional food and pharmaceutical preparations.